Thoracic Surgery is a speciality of medicine which is concerned with the study and surgical treatment of diseases which affect the thorax, i.e. the area between the neck and the diaphragm. Thoracic surgeons are specialised in all diseases which affect the thoracic cavity, excepting all those related to the heart and blood vessels. They treat various cancers such as lung cancer, mediastinum cancer, tumours in the thoracic wall and plueral tumours. They are also responsible for the diagnosis of diseases of the mediastinum and diaphragm, thoracic traumas and congenital diseases of the rib cage. They treat various diseases such as pneumothoraces, hyperhidrosis, pectus excavatum, pleural effusion, pulmonary nodules, tuberculosis and even fractured ribs.