The most complete medical information written by the best doctors


Ankle arthrodesis

Orthopaedic surgery

What is ankle arthrodesis? Ankle arthrodesis, also known as ankle fusion, is a surgical procedure to fuse two or more bones in the ankle and anchor the joint. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia and on an outpatient basis. Why is ankle arthrodesis performed? Ankle arthrodesis is most commonly performed to...

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Abdominal MRI

Radiology, Interventional radiology, Paediatrics, Paediatric endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism

An abdominal MRI is a type of scan which uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the soft tissues in your abdomen. An MRI is carried out by a radiologist, and is a safe and pain-free procedure. Why do I need an abdominal MRI? An abdominal MRI...

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Abdominal pain

Paediatrics, Gastroenterology, Internal medicine, Hepatology (liver specialist), Paediatric allergy & immunology, Paediatric surgery, Colorectal surgery, Paediatric gastroenterology, Surgery, Pain medicine, Rheumatology

What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain can be a symptom of many conditions. It is the name given to pain that radiates between the chest and the groin. The most common cause is: constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, food allergies or intolerances, or food poisoning. There are different types of abdominal pain, including: Burning pain: could be caused by gastritis, an ulcer, or reflux. Colic pain: could be due...

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Abdominal ultrasound


What is an abdominal ultrasound? An abdominal ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging test that uses ultrasound waves to examine the internal organs of the abdomen, such as the kidneys, liver, spleen, gallbladder, or pancreas. The blood vessels that reach some organs, such as the aorta or vena cava, can also be visualised using an abdominal ultrasound. What happens during the procedure? You will need to lie down while a...

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Abdominal wall reconstruction

Surgery, Plastic surgery

What is abdominal wall reconstruction surgery? The abdominal wall is the three layers of muscle that protect and hold the inner organs. Sometimes, the strength and thickness of these muscles can become weak and unstable, due to a number of reasons, including: Recurring hernias Open, non-healing wounds The aim of abdominal wall reconstruction surgery is to redistribute more evenly, and hence strengthen the abdominal...

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Abnormal chest X-ray

Cardiology, Paediatric respiratory medicine, Pulmonology & respiratory medicine, Radiology, Internal medicine

What is an abnormal chest x-ray? A chest X-ray is an imaging test that utilises low doses of radiation in short blasts to create images of the inside of a patient’s chest. In this way, doctors can examine the...

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Abnormal gait


What are gait abnormalities? Gait abnormalities are alterations in the way of walking, usually due to injuries or pathologies of the spinal cord, brain, legs or feet. They can affect the speed at which you walk, and lead problems with consistency, symmetry or movements that are not synchronised. A gait takes place following a repetitive cycle in which different structures of the central and peripheral nervous system are involved. This cycle can be affected by...

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Abnormal smear test

Obstetrics & gynaecology, Genitourinary Medicine, GP (general practitioner)

What does it mean if your smear test results are abnormal? If you have an abnormal smear test result, this does not mean you have cancer. Instead, you have some changes in the cells of your cervix. Depending on how abnormal these changes are, there is a potential for these cells to develop into cancer in the future. Some types of abnormal result will not need treatment, whereas others may require follow-up tests and treatment. It depends on the type of result you...

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AC joint surgery

Orthopaedic surgery

What is AC joint surgery? AC joint surgery, also known as acromioclavicular joint surgery, is a type of shoulder operation to treat acromioclavicular joint separation, also known as a separated shoulder. An acromioclavicular joint separation occurs when the clavicle (collarbone) separates from the scapula (shoulder blade). It is not to be confused with a

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Accelerated orthodontics

Dentistry, Orthodontics

Accelerated orthodontics is a sub-specialty of orthodontics that aims to shorten the amount of time needed to have your teeth straightened. Some methods have been shown to speed up the process by between three to eight months. Traditional braces can take between two to four years to achieve straight teeth, but with accelerated orthodontics, the time is drastically reduced.

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