Specialty of Obstetrics & gynaecology

Childbirth is when the baby leaves the womb at the end of the nine months of pregnancy, although it may occur prematurely. Labour starts when the mother starts feeling irregular and continuous uterine contractions, which progressively increase in frequency and intensity. Together with the contractions there are also some other physiological changes happening in the cervix, which will help the baby to be born. The pregnant woman should be taken to a hospital in order to receive all the medical care required. In some cases, she may require the help of anaesthetic drugs or oxytocin, which are used when there are complications. Ideally, during labour the baby goes through the mother’s vagina spontaneously, without complications or the need for doctors to use instruments. However, in many cases there is the need to use instruments, such as forceps, to help the baby during delivery. A lot of births are by Caesarean section, a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the abdomen and uterus to remove the baby when a natural birth is too complicated or dangerous for the mother and child.

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