Infertility is the inability to achieve pregnancy after a period of 12 months or more of unprotected sex. This term should be distinguished from sterility, which is the absolute inability to achieve pregnancy. According to the World Health Organization, infertility affects 15% of couples. In approximately 40% of cases, it is male infertility; in another 40%, the female is infertile, and in the remaining 20% either of the two sexes is infertile, or there are unspecified causes. The causes may be varied: genetics, immune, endocrine, toxic, infectious, etc. so both partners must undergo medical tests. Treatment may include techniques such as in vitro fertilisation, artificial insemination, transfer of zygotes to the fallopian tubes, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
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