Endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery is a minimally invasive heart operation which uses blood vessels from the chest or leg to ‘bypass’ clogged heart arteries. One end of a vessel is attached to the aorta (the artery that carries blood from the heart) and the other is attached to the coronary artery below the point at which it is blocked. This creates a new channel that allows blood to flow to the heart. In this less invasive procedure, compared to traditional methods, the surgeon inserts an endoscopic camera and surgical instruments through small openings in the skin. The surgeon uses a computer console to display the surgical field and holds handles that look just like regular surgical tools. The delicate motions are mechanically relayed to a computer control system.