Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that treats diseases of the gums and bone supporting the teeth. The most common diseases are gingivitis and periodontitis. The first is one that affects the gums and soft tissues that protect teeth. The second, more complex, causes infection in the bone that supports the teeth and other tissues such as periodontal ligament and cementum. The most common causes are related to the bacteria that remain on the teeth and gums, which over time can cause tissue damage. These diseases cause redness and bleeding gums, spontaneously or during brushing. Other causes include snuff, heredity, pregnancy and some diseases such as diabetes.