Medical articles of Obstetrics & gynaecology More than 1108 items endorsed by the best medical specialists

Cervical cancer screening: what does it mean when CIN is detected?

Cervical cancer most commonly affects younger women, so it is important to have regular cervical smear tests to ensure that any sign of pre-cancerous cells is dealt with. If abnormalities are detected in a smear test, you may be referred for a colposcopy. CIN is one such abnormality that a colposcopy can detect. Mr Angus McIndoe, a leading gynaecologist, explains what CIN is and how they can be treated.

Why do I keep getting urinary tract infections? Recurrent UTIs in women

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are never fun, with patients suffering pain while urinating, frequent trips to the toilet, and abdominal pain. The worst part is that some people seem to get them again and again. What causes recurrent UTIs? Expert urologist Mr Ranjan Thilagarajah provides some answers to this common problem.

Understanding postmenopausal bleeding

Once women have gone through the menopause, they should not experience any bleeding, spotting or coloured discharge. If this is experienced postmenopausally, you should seek the advice of a specialist. Mr Angus McIndoe, a renowned obstetrician and gynaecologist, explains what happens at a doctor’s appointment when investigating postmenopausal bleeding and the possible causes behind it.

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