The most complete medical information written by the best doctors


J-Pouch surgery

Colorectal surgery, Surgery, Gastroenterology

What is J-pouch surgery? J-pouch surgery, also known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), is a procedure that is used to restore functionality to a patient’s digestive system by removing the large intestine and creating an alternative path for waste to pass from the small intestine to the anus. The procedure is used to assist in treating...

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JAK2 mutation test

Clinical genetics, Internal medicine

What is being analysed? The JAK2 mutation test is a diagnostic test used to detect mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene. This gene encodes a protein involved in signalling pathways that regulate blood cell production. Mutations in the JAK2 gene are commonly associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), such as polycythaemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary...

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Paediatrics, Internal medicine, Hepatology (liver specialist), Surgery

What is jaundice? Jaundice, also known as icterus,is a disorder that causes the skin and white parts of the eyes toturn a yellowish colour. It isnot a diseasein itself, but rather asymptomof something happening. Jaundice occurs when there is anexcess of...

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Joint injections

Pain medicine, Ozone therapy, Rheumatology, Orthopaedic surgery, Paediatric orthopaedics, Sports medicine, GP (general practitioner)

What are joint injections? Joint injections are administered in a joint or periarticular soft tissue that is affected by inflammation. Injections – when prescribed correctly – can be an excellent solution for problems such as bursitis or tendonitis, or for physical...

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Joint mobilisation

Osteopathy, Physiotherapy

Joint mobilisation is a manual therapy technique widely utilised by physiotherapists and osteopaths to address various musculoskeletal conditions. It involves skilled and precise passive movements applied to joints to restore normal joint function, alleviate pain, and enhance range of motion.

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Joint pain

Pain medicine, Internal medicine, GP (general practitioner) , Sports medicine, Orthopaedic surgery, Rheumatology, Paediatric orthopaedics, Physiotherapy

What is joint pain? Joint pain refers to pain, discomfort and soreness in the joints. Joints are the parts of your body where bones meet. They allow your bones to move. Joints include the shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. Joint pain can be the result of damage that occurs through normal wear-and-tear,...

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Joint preservation surgery

Orthopaedic surgery

What is joint preservation surgery? Joint preservation surgery covers a number of treatments that are an alternative option to joint replacement surgery. The aim of joint preservation surgery is to restore functionality to a joint so that it does not have to be replaced, or to delay the need to replace a joint. Joint preservation can be...

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Joint replacement

Orthopaedic surgery, Plastic surgery

What is a joint replacement? Joint replacement refers to one of a number of surgical procedures in which damaged or diseased parts of a joint are removed and artificial replacements are fitted. Joint replacement surgery can be performed on a number of joints in the body, most commonly the

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Juvenile arthritis

Rheumatology, Neurology

What is juvenile arthritis? Juvenile arthritis, otherwise known as paediatric rheumatic disease, is a term used to describe a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that can develop in children. The tissue on the inside of the joints (synovium tissue) can become inflamed due to a fault with the autoimmune system, which usually protects the body, where the immune system attacks the synovium tissue.

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