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Vaccines

Paediatrics

Vaccines are a number of drugs used as a preventive measure for diseases and allergies. When germs enter our body, the immune system recognises them as foreign substances (antigens agents); therefore, the system itself is responsible for putting the production of the required amount of antibodies up to combat these antigens. Based on this process, the vaccines contain weakened or killed antigens that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. That way, the body is ready to fight...

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Vacuum therapy

Aesthetic medicine

What is vacuum therapy? Vacuum therapy is a non-invasive treatment to combat severe cellulite. It is carried out using suction devices that drain the adipose tissue and move the fat towards the lymphatic system. Vacuum therapy also helps to eliminate fat, it has an exfoliating effect, provides elasticity to the skin and relaxes the muscles. Why is it...

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Vaginal dryness

Aesthetic medicine

Vaginal dryness occurs due to a decrease on the levels of oestrogen hormones that keep lubricated the vagina and prevents any kind of pathology. When oestrogen levels are low, the vaginal lining shrinks and thickens impeding lubrication. The causes of this condition may be different: menopause, treatments for breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids or infertility, severe stress or depression, among others. There are different treatments for vaginal dryness and it is...

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Vaginal problems

Urology

What problems can affect the vagina? There are a number of problems that can affect the vagina, including: Vaginitis – inflammation of the vagina. Usually caused by bacteria or yeast infections. Sexual problems...

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Vaginal prolapse

Urology

What is vaginal prolapse? Vaginal prolapse, also called pelvis organ prolapse (POP), is when the muscles that support the organs in the pelvis weaken and one or more of the organs begins to bulge into and even out of the vagina. Organs that can prolapse in this way...

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Vaginal ring

Obstetrics & gynaecology

What is the vaginal ring? The vaginal ring, also known as the contraceptive ring, is a contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy. The ring sits inside the vagina and releases continuous doses of oestrogen and progestogen into the bloodstream to prevent pregnancy by preventing the ovaries from releasing an egg each month. The progestogen helps prevent sperm from entering the uterus by causing the...

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Vaginismus

Psychology

What is vaginismus? Vaginismus is a condition where the muscles in the vagina spasm and tighten involuntarily in response to sexual penetration, gynaecological examination or insertion of a tampon. The tightening or even closing of the vagina is completely unconscious, like the reflex of the eye shutting when something comes close to it. For many women and their partners this can cause a great degree of stress and anxiety because sexual intercourse and gynaecological examinations...

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Vaginitis

Obstetrics & gynaecology

What is vaginitis? Vaginitis is the inflammation of the vagina and vulva, causing itching, pain or discomfort and discharge. It is one of the most frequent gynaecological problems and it is estimated that 90% of women will suffer from some form of vaginitis throughout their lives. There are different types of vaginitis: Bacterial vaginosis Yeast infection (

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Vaginoplasty

Plastic surgery

What is vaginoplasty? Vaginoplasty is a vaginal rejuvenation surgery that aims to correct the distension and loosening of the vaginal canal tissues and to recover the tightening and contraction capacity of the vaginal muscles. Both childbirth and ageing can cause the vaginal canal muscles to loosen. Vaginoplasty is sometimes referred to as

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Valvular heart disease

Cardiology

What is valvular heart disease? Valvular heart disease includes any disease that affect the valves of the heart. These pathologies affect the aortic and mitral valve on the left side and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of the heart. If they get worse and are not treated, they can affect the flow of blood through...

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